br Fig CT imaging properties of CUSCs PEG FA a
Fig. 7. CT imaging properties of CUSCs-PEG-FA. (a) In vitro CT images of CUSCs-PEG-FA with diﬀerent Gd and Yb concentrations. (b) CT values of CUSCs-PEG-FA aqueous solutions as a function of the Gd and Yb concentrations. (c) CT images of tumor-bearing Balb/c mouse before (up) and after (below) injection of CUSCs-PEG-FA.
Fig. 8. MRI properties of CUSCs-PEG-FA. (a) In vitro T1-weighted MRI of CUSCs-PEG-FA versus Gd concentrations. (b) Relaxation rate 1/T1 as a function of the Gd molar concentration. (c) T1-weighted MRI of tumor-bearing Balb/c mouse before (left) and after (right) injection of CUSCs-PEG-FA.
Fig. 9. (a) Relative tumour volume of tumor-bearing mice in diﬀerent groups under various treatments.
(b) The weight of tumor dissected from the tumor-bearing mice in diﬀerent groups after treatment for 14 days. (c) Tumor pictures of representative tumor-bearing mice and digital photographs of various treated tumor-bearing mice. (d) H&E stained images achieved from diﬀerent groups after 14 days of treatment. Scale bars for all images are 50 μm.
of FA and the subcutaneous tissue penetration to eﬀectively kill tumor cells.
In summary, we proposed a smart nanoplatform via integrating mesoporous silica-coated UCNPs with CuS nanoparticles and g-C3N4 QDs and performed further modification with PEG and targeted FA. The prepared product was analyzed with TEM, XRD, XPS, IR, MTT, uptake and dye tests to demonstrate its biological applicability. Meanwhile, the nanocomposite exhibits excellent UCL imaging capability under a single 808 nm NIR laser due to the doping of Nd3+ ions. Compared with conventional 980 nm NIR lasers, the 808 nm NIR laser does not cause severe overheating of Trichostatin A and cells. Since g-C3N4 QDs consist of C and N only, their biological toxicity is very low; additionally, they can remain stable in the biological environment due to smaller size, which is also beneficial for cellular uptake. CuS nanoparticles are also com-posed of an inorganic substance with low toxicity and high photo-thermal conversion eﬃciency. In particular, the nanocomposite exhibits high and synergistic anticancer ability versus cancer cells as a result of combined PTT and PDT, and the synergistic anticancer ability is su-perior to monotherapy. Furthermore, doping with rare earth ions makes the obtained product suitable for CT and MRI. All of these results imply
that this nanocomposite represents an excellent candidate for image-guided therapy. Although the synthesis of the nanocomposite is slightly complicated, the method is stable, the operation is simple, and the product is readily prepared. More importantly, the nanocomposite si-multaneously possesses excellent optical, photothermal and photo-dynamic properties, which are diﬃcult to find in a simple or pure material. On the other hand, simple materials with eﬃcient anti-cancer eﬃciency and safety are still urgently needed and necessitate further exploration by researchers.
Financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC 51772059, 51502050, 51702070, 51602073, and 51602072), the Special Innovation Talents of Harbin Science and Technology (2016RAXXJ005), a General Financial Grant from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2016M600241), a Special Financial Grant from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2017T00228), and the Fundamental Research funds for the Central Universities are greatly acknowledged.
Fig. 10. H&E staining images of major organs (heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney) achieved from diﬀerent groups after 14 days of treatment. Scale bars for all images are 50 μm.